Are monosaccharides carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates, like proteins and fats, are macronutrients. Carbohydrates consist of one or more building blocks, the saccharides. During Digestion eventually become all digestible carbohydrates broken down into monosaccharides. Has a saccharide a ring structure and is made up of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O). The most famous saccharide is glucose (C6H12O6). All natural, digestible carbohydrates, regardless of the type, provide 4 kilocalories per gram. Polyols (sugar alcohols) used as sweeteners are used have a different calorific value. Table 1 lists the main types of carbohydrates in the power supply is displayed.
Monosaccharides consist of one saccharide. Examples are: glucose, fructose and galactose. Monosaccharides consist of a chain of 3-7 carbon atoms, with the chains with 6 carbon atoms being by far the most common in nature. A number of shorter-chain carbohydrates are also of importance in the diet. Due to small differences in the spatial structure, there are many dozens of monosaccharides. Of this group, glucose and fructose are the most abundant. Glucose is a building block of many long polysaccharides, such as starch and cellulose. Glucose and fructose are also the main sweeteners in many fruits and honey. Arabinose, mannose and galactose are especially important as building blocks of many polysaccharides, ribose is part of our hereditary material (RNA and DNA). Xylose is a raw material of the widely used xylitol. Tagatose is used today as an alternative to granulated sugar.
Digestible and indigestible
Carbohydrates can be divided into digestible and indigestible carbohydrates. Dietary fiber is indigestible carbohydrates, these can be turned back subdivided into fermentable, partly fermentable and non-fermentable fiber. Fermentable fibers are (partially) in the large intestine by bacteria broken down into short-chain fatty acids that provide energy to the body. Non-fermentable fiber leaves the gut unaltered and delivers no energy. On average, dietary fiber provides 2 kilocalories per gram.
Sugar syrups made from monosaccharides
In addition to regular sugar, sugar syrups are also used applied in foodstuffs. The different types are described below. Glucose-fructose syrup and high fructose corn syrup High fructose corn syrup (GFS) is a liquid sweetener made up of various sugars, especially glucose and fructose. The fructose content varies from 5 to 50 percent. If the fructose content is higher than 50 percent is called fructose corn syrup (FGS).
In the European Union, GFS and FGS are mainly made from grain or maize starch. at first body, glucose syrup is made by adding starch split (starches are glucose polymers), leaving free glucose molecules are formed. Subsequently, a part of these molecules enzymatically converted into fructose – a process called isomerization – until the desired glucose-fructose ratio is reached. In Europe become FGS and GFS with a fructose content higher than 10 percent also referred to in European legislation with isoglucose, derived from the isomerization process. invert sugar Invert sugar is a solution of equal amounts glucose and fructose. Invert sugar is obtained by the disaccharide to split sucrose in whole or in part in free glucose and free fructose. This happens under the influence of acids or the enzyme invertase.